Communion was given out selectively, for this was one of the most important sacraments that the missionaries did not want to risk having the natives violate. Christianity expanded from Cebu when the remaining Spanish missionaries were forced westwards due to conflict with the Portuguese, and laid the foundations of the Christian community in the Panay between around 1560 to 1571. This is a novena of dawn masses said for nine days before Christmas. Catholics all over the world practice this tradition each year. The most iconic Christmas crooner is Jose Mari Chan. The largest celebrations are the Sinulog Festival in Cebu City, the Ati-Atihan in Kalibo, Aklan, and the Dinagyang in Iloilo City (which is instead held on the fourth Sunday of January). Pedro Chirino, a Jesuit sent to the Philippines in the 17th century, described Filipino choirs as better than those of Spain. Overseas Filipinos have spread Filipino culture worldwide, bringing Filipino Catholicism with them. Laws are often framed around Catholic values. The Cebu Archbishop, who was president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippinesat that time, led the rest of the Philippine bishops and m… Over time, geographical limitations had shifted the natives into barangays, small kinship units consisting of about 30 to 100 families. Catholic ideas continue to inform beliefs throughout Filipino society such as the sanctity of life and respect for hierarchy. A verified Mass was held at the island-port of Mazaua on Easter Sunday, March 31, 1521, as recorded by the Venetian diarist Antonio Pigafetta, who travelled to the islands in 1521 on the Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan.[4]. Then-Archbishop of Cebu Ricardo Cardinal Vidal and then-Archbishop of Manila Jaime Cardinal Sin were the two pillars of the uprising against autocratic dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos. Simbang Gabi is a devotional nine-day series of Masses leading up to Christmas. The Christian conquest had not reached the Mindanao province due to a highly resistant Muslim community that existed pre-conquest. It has founded and continues to sponsor hundreds of secondary and primary schools as well as a number of colleges and internationally known universities. [5] This expedition was an effort to occupy the islands with as little conflict as possible, ordered by Phillip II. In return, the Spaniards agreed to protect the natives from their enemies, mostly Japanese, Chinese, and Muslim pirates. If you’re reading this article, it’s thanks to the generosity of people like you, who have made Aleteia possible. The denomination of Christianity that became most embedded in Filipino culture is Catholicism, which was introduced in the Philippines during the early colonial period by the Spanish. The most impressive display of these lanterns still takes place every year in the town of San Fernando where the festive spirit of this lantern festival is so remarkably in evidence. One typical event is the role of the Catholic hierarchy during the bloodless People Power Revolution of 1986. The Spaniards also came into conflict with the Chinese population in the Philippines. The Filipinos faced much coercion; the Spaniards knew little of native rituals. The island became the ecclesiastical "seat" and the center for evangelization. Many Filipinos today attend this novena to pray for a specific intention. I said your God is not my God because your God is stupid. "Virtual religious gatherings amidst COVID-19", "Mass livestream, alcohol at church entrances as Manila archdiocese guards against COVID-19", "No public mass for seven days in Manila archdiocese to help curb COVID-19", "Soldiers Of Christ Catholic Charismatic Healing Ministry Official", "Millions flock to papal Mass in Manila Gathering is called the largest the pope has seen at a service", "CBCP: Pope Francis may visit Philippines in 2016", "Pope Francis invited to Cebu event in 2016 – Tagle", "cardinal vidal says dialogue helped limit bloodshed during coup", "Church to continue opposition vs RH bill passage", Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre Japan (2006), "Catholic Church dissents on Duterte's drug war", "Filipinos hold Grand Marian Procession ahead of Mary's feast", Official website of the Catholic Church in the Philippines, On Religious Freedom in the Philippines by the U.S. Department of State, Official Website of the Diocese of Libmanan, Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the Philippines, Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting, Bastion of Truth Reformed Churches in the Philippines, Christian and Missionary Alliance Churches of the Philippines, Christian Reformed Church in the Philippines, Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the Philippines, Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ (4th Watch), Philippines General Council of the Assemblies of God, Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, Evangelical Methodist Church in the Philippine Islands, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association. The form that Catholicism takes in the Philippines is many ways unique to the region in which it is pra Across Christian areas of the Philippines indigenous religions or spiritual practices have entered into and influenced the practice of Catholicism. [11] In response, some churches offer sanctuary to those who fear death due to the drug war violence. Sitio Romlon, Quiot Pardo Cebu City. In 2015, it was estimated that 84 million Filipinos, or roughly 82.9% to 85% of the population, profess the Catholic faith. The Filipinos are family oriented and often religious with an appreciation for art, fashion, music and food. In March 2020, in response to the prohibition of mass gatherings during the "enhanced community quarantine" throughout Luzon, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) through its President, Archbishop Romulo Valles, said that the celebration of the Eucharist, other liturgical services and spiritual activities from every diocese under their jurisdiction have to be broadcast live through the internet, television or radio. Led by Father Urdaneta, Spanish Augustinian friars moved from Mexico to the Philippines upon the request of Philip II and became the first official Catholic missionaries in the country. In the 21st century, Catholic practice ranges from traditional orthodoxy, to Folk Catholicism and Charismatic Catholicism. [10] Members of the Catholic clergy have been killed during the drug war. Most modern interpreters of the New Testament would agree to a description of faith as … They were however, allowed to keep the tradition of dowry, which was accepted into law; "bride-price" and "bride-service" were practiced by natives despite labels of heresy. Under the encomienda system, Filipinos had to pay tribute to the encomendero of the area, and in return the encomendero taught them the Christian faith and protected them from enemies. On the death of Pope John Paul II in 2005, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo declared three days of national mourning, and was one of many dignitaries at his funeral in Vatican City. Bathala (Tagalog – Central Luzon) or Laon (Visayan) was the ultimate]] creator deity above subordinate gods and goddesses. [1] The episcopal conference responsible in governing the faith is the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines. The Jesuit Ateneo de Manila University, La Salle Brothers De La Salle University, and the Dominican University of Santo Tomas are listed in the "World's Best Colleges and Universities" in the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings. [25], Other prominent educational institutions in the country are St. Scholastica's College Manila, Angeles University Foundation, Holy Angel University, Vincentian's Adamson University, Colegio de San Juan de Letran, University of San Carlos, University of San Jose – Recoletos, San Beda College, Saint Louis University, Saint Mary's University, St. Paul University System, Canossa School, San Pedro College, San Sebastian College – Recoletos de Manila, Ateneo de Davao University, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, University of St. La Salle, University of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame University, Notre Dame of Marbel University, Notre Dame of Dadiangas University, Salesians of Don Bosco in the Philippines, Saint Mary's Academy of Nagcarlan, Sanctuario de San Antonio Children's Learning Center, and the University of San Agustin, La Consolacion College, Universidad de Santa Isabel, Ateneo de Naga University, University of Santo Tomas - Legazpi, The Catholic Church wields great influence on Philippine society and politics. The Catholic Church is involved in education at all levels. Baptism was believed to simply cure ailments, while Matrimony was a concept many natives could not understand and thus they violated the sanctity of monogamy. Aside from fasting and abstinence, there are many other traditions we grew up following. A Traditional Roman Catholic who propagate celebrating the Tridentine Mass throughout the world especially in the Philippines Mission. The Spaniards attempted to suppress this class system based on their interpretation that the dependent, servile class were an oppressed group. Many use the manger scene as motif, a sign that faith and the rest of life are still comfortably interwoven in the Philippines. The native rulers agreed to submit to the rule of the Castilian king and convert to Christianity, and allow missionaries to spread the faith. The five regular orders who were assigned to Christianize the natives were the Augustinians, who came with Legazpi, the Discalced Franciscans (1578), the Jesuits (1581), the Dominican friars (1587) and the Augustinian Recollects (simply called the Recoletos, 1606). With Spanish regalia, indigenous miracle stories, and Asian facial features, Filipino Catholics have created hybridized, localized images, the popular devotions to which have been recognized by various Popes. In this era, in the first decade of 1900, Jorge Barlin was ordained as the first Filipino bishop of the Catholic Church, for the Archdiocese of Nueva Caceres. The first thing you need to know is that many Catholics live in the Philippines — you may want to become familiar with Catholic traditions before you attend a Filipino funeral. They are very devoted to religions that sometimes many take the risk of their lives just to touch the Black Nazarine (in Quiapo Manila). [26], In 1989, President Corazon Aquino asked Cardinal Vidal to convince General Jose Comendador, who was sympathetic to the rebel forces fighting her government, to peacefully surrender. This love for music remains a trademark of Philippine Christmases. The Philippines is one of the two nations in Asia having a substantial portion of the population professing the Catholic faith, along with East Timor, and has the third largest Catholic population in the world after Brazil and Mexico. They were also spread far enough to allow for one cabecera or capital parish, and small visita chapels located throughout the villages in which clergy only stayed temporarily for Mass, rituals, or nuptials. Although the natives were resistant, they could not organise into a unified resistance towards the Spaniards, partly due to geography, ethno-linguistic differences. .css-pelz90{font-weight:400;}The Philippines has the longest history of Christmas traditions in Asia, thanks to Spanish missionaries who came to the islands in the late sixteenth century. [31] Particularly, there are pilgrimage sites where each town venerates a specific title of Mary. Natives Filipinos also worshiped nature and venerated the spirits of their ancestors, whom they propitiated with sacrifices. The Dominicans encompassed the Parian. The people's response became what is now known as the People Power Revolution, which ousted Marcos. Others use this tradition to meditate on the events leading up to Christ’s birth, as a way to spiritually prepare for the Christmas feast. Other missionaries desired to go to Japan or China instead and some who remained were more interested in mercantilism. Holy Week ( called Semana Santa in the Philippines ) starts on Palm Sunday, and continuous on until Black Saturday. Today, preparing for these traditions begin months before December comes. Locals were initially apprehensive, but gradually used the rite to excuse excesses throughout the year. The observance of Holy Week in the Philippines is a strong manifestation of Filipinos' faith and affinity to religious customs. Spain introduced Catholicism to the Philippines through the former’s rule over the latter. Religion in the Philippines is marked by a majority of people being adherents of the Christian faith. His call sparked the second EDSA Revolution, dubbed as "EDSA Dos". Another unique feature of the Filipino belen is its use of local details. For others, the climate difference once they arrived was unbearable. COVID-19 tip: If you're planning or attending a Zoom funeral using a service like GatheringUs, the order of service, etiquette, and timing will vary. It only takes a minute. This tradition began in San Fernando, Pampanga, a town 75 km outside of Manila. Its local name “Simbang Gabi” is Tagalog for Night Mass, since these Eucharists are celebrated before sunrise. "Duterte's drug war killed thousands, and Filipinos still loved him. The Way has been mostly concentrated on evangelisation initiatives under the authority of the local bishops. But the New Testament idea of faith is not simple; indeed, it possesses a breadth of meaning that has led to varying understandings, even within a single Christian communion. The Catholic Church in the Philippines is organized into 72 dioceses in 16 Ecclesiastical Provinces, as well as 7 Apostolic Vicariates and a Military Ordinariate. They were originally used to light the way for those attending the Simbang Gabi. Throughout November, Christmas carols are heard in malls, while decorations appear along main avenues and public buildings. As the country’s religiosity weakens, reflecting on what these enduring traditions mean can hopefully rekindle an appreciation for the Christian story hidden at the heart of our most festive feast, and maybe even the rest of life. A CNN writer called this lantern town “Asia’s Christmas Capital.”. Map of the Philippines showing the different apostolic vicariates. His Vice-President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, succeeded him immediately and was sworn in on the terrace of the Shrine in front of Cardinal Sin. Easter is a major religious holiday in the Philippines, where around 80% of the country's population is Roman Catholic. Filipinos are also hospitable people who love to have a good time. In the Philippines, the custom of Simbang Gabi developed from the farming community. For us to understand more about this religious tradition, Pabasa literally means “act of reading or to read” (Libnary 2010). The Cebu Archbishop, who was president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines at that time, led the rest of the Philippine bishops and made a joint declaration against the government and the results of the snap election, while the Manila Archbishop appealed to the public via radio to march along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue in support of rebel forces. In some nativity sets, Joseph and Mary are dressed in tropical clothes instead of Palestinian robes, have a carabao instead of a donkey, and are housed in a hut flanked by coconut trees instead of a cave. Though the majority of Filipinos are Catholic, often ancient … But the Philippine experience has shown that this theoretical wall of separation has been crossed several times by secular authorities. They failed at completely abolishing the system, but instead eventually worked to use it to their own advantage. In October 2000, an aged Cardinal Sin expressed his dismay over the allegations of corruption against President Joseph Estrada. The Catholic Church in the Philippines (Filipino: Simbahang Katolika sa Pilipinas; Spanish: Iglesia Católica en las Filipinas) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Pope. Map of the Philippines showing the different archdioceses. The Church in the Philippines strongly opposed the Reproductive Bill, which is commonly known as RH Bill. To help their cause, evangelism was done in the native language. The Catholic Church wields great influence on Philippine society and politics. Divorce and remarriage were also common as long as the reasons were justified. Today as a result, the Catholic church still remains a very powerful force in the Philippines. This 3D "carbon copy" of Jesus was created us... 3 Powerful sacramentals to have in your home. As you can imagine, these numbers represent a lot of work. Faith and family hand in hand, divorce illegal in the Philippines. Whenever I see people giving gifts, exchanging cards, Confession was required of everyone once a year, and the clergy used the confessionario, a bilingual text aid, to help natives understand the rite's meaning and what they had to confess. Cardinal Vidal stepped forward again and personally asked Estrada to step down, to which he agreed at around 12:20 p.m. of January 20, 2001, after five continuous days of protest at the EDSA Shrine and cities, municipalities and provinces of the Philippines and various parts of the world. Then-Archbishop of Cebu Ricardo Cardinal Vidal and then-Archbishop of Manila Jaime Cardinal Sin were the two pillars of the uprising against autocratic dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos. Filipino Catholic practice is unusually material and physical, even among Catholic cultures, built especially on devotions to Mary, the suffering Christ, and the Santo Niño (Holy Child), and on powerful celebratory and penitential rituals practiced and experienced in a wide variety of Filipino vernacular forms. This meal begins late in the evening of Christmas Eve and lasts until the first few hours of the Christmas Day, and usually consists of queso de bola (a ball of edam cheese), sweet Christmas ham, Ensaymada (a light sweet bread dusted with sugar and grated cheese) and hot chocolate. [7] As the Spanish and their local allies were in a state of constant war against pirates and slavers, the Philippines became a drain on the Vice-royalty of New Spain in Mexico City, which paid to maintaining control of Las Islas Filipinas in lieu of the Spanish crown. [2], During the Philippine Drug War, the Church in the Philippines has been critical of extra judicial killings, and what it sees as Duterte Administration approval of the bloodshed. It reduced the significant political power exerted by the Church, which led to the establishment of other faiths (particularly Protestantism) within the country. Furthermore, frequent privateering from Japanese Wokou pirates and slave-raiding by Islamic Moros blocked Spanish attempts to Christianize the archipelago, and to offset the disruption of continuous warfare with them, the Spanish militarized the local populations, importing soldiers from Latin America, and constructed networks of fortresses across the islands. In 1572, the Spaniards led by Juan de Salcedo marched north from Manila with the second batch of Augustinian missionaries and pioneered the evangelization in the Ilocos (starting with Vigan) and the Cagayan regions.[5]. Herrera travelled further in the Espiritu Santo and shipwrecked in Catanduanes, where he died attempting to convert the natives. ... Every Novermber 1st-2nd Catholic Filipinos gather at the graves of deceased relatives, praying, and lighting candles in their memory, … He then proceeded to make Roman Catholicism a state religion by first converting the Chief of Cebu, and several hundreds of his followers. One typical event is the role of the Catholic hierarchy during the bloodless People Power Revolution of 1986. Recollects, Jesuits, Dominicans, Benedictines, Franciscans, Carmelites, Divine Word Missionaries, De La Salle Christian Brothers, Salesians of Don Bosco, and the indigenous Religious of the Virgin Mary. Roman Catholicism - Roman Catholicism - Beliefs and practices: The idea of faith shared by all Christian churches is rooted in the New Testament. At least 92% of the population is Christian; about 81% belong to the Catholic Church while about 11% belong to Protestantism, Orthodoxy, Restorationist and Independent Catholicism and other denominations such as Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Iglesia ni Cristo, Seventh-day Adventist Church, United Church of … Roman Catholicism is the largest religion in the Philippines. Our Lady of Mt. Did you know that the Philippines is the only predominantly Christian nation in Asia? This localized nativity scene demonstrates how Filipinos have transformed Christianity from a once foreign faith into their own. Their habit of going to church and often praying reflects that Filipinos have a deep faith and belief when it comes to religion. Hopes, dreams, and fortunes are pinned onto the fate of these carefully bred birds. Missionary Fray Alfonso Jimenez OSA travelled into the Camarines region through the islands of Masbate, Leyte, Samar, and Burias and centered the church on Naga City. When the Philippines was placed under Martial Law by dictator Ferdinand Marcos, relations between Church and State changed dramatically, as some bishops expressly and openly opposed Martial Law. A traditional Christmas decoration found all over the Philippines are star lanterns reminiscent of the star of Bethlehem. The Philippines is the only Christian nation in Asia--with 86 percent of the citizens identifying as Roman Catholics. It was part of the Spanish conquest to convert all the natives to Christ through their Catholic tradition. They believe the sacrifice of waking up before sunrise adds potency to their prayers. In 1594, all had agreed to cover a specific area of the archipelago to deal with the vast dispersion of the natives. Again this song’s popularity is evidence that Christmas and faith are inseparably intertwined in the Filipino imagination. These scions of now-tributary monarchs and rulers were subjected to intense education in religious doctrine and the Spanish language, with the theory that they in turn could convert their elders, and eventually the nobleman's subjects. However, the missionaries continued their proselytising efforts, one strategy being targeting noble children. The Hispanic-influenced custom of holding fiestas in honour of patron saints have become an integral part of Filipino culture, as it allows for communal celebration while serving as a time marker for the year. The most popular song of this collection has an unmistakable Christian focus, as we see in these lyrics: Whenever I see girls and boys selling lanterns on the street, ). Accepted reasons for divorce included illness, infertility, or a finding better potential to take as a spouse. The geographical isolation forced the Filipino population into numerous small villages, and every other province supported a different language. With 81% of Filipinos defining themselves as Catholic, the country's culture and society is intimately intertwined with the teaching of the church. Political candidates continue to court the clergy and religious leaders for support. Compared to the Spanish Era, when Christianity was recognized as the state religion, the faith today is practiced in the context of a secular state. One of the most important Holy Week traditions in the Philippines is the Visita Iglesia (Spanish for "church visit", also known as the Seven Churches Visitation). Holy week is certainly no exception to this, as it’s a very important time of year. 20 million users around the world read Aleteia.org every month, Aleteia is published every day in eight languages: English, French, Arabic, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, and Slovenian, Each month, readers view more than 50 million pages, Nearly 4 million people follow Aleteia on social media, Each month, we publish 2,450 articles and around 40 videos, We have 60 full time staff and approximately 400 collaborators (writers, translators, photographers, etc. Membership in the Philippines now exceeds 35,000 persons in more than 1000 communities, with concentrations in Manila and IloIlo province. As Catholics, Filipinos practice the religion’s ideologies concerning death and conduct their funeral services in accordance to Catholic theology. Below are some pilgrimage sites and the year they received a canonical blessing: Catholic holy days, such as Christmas and Good Friday, are observed as national holidays,[32] with local saints' days being observed as holidays in different towns and cities. A nationwide fiesta occurs on the third Sunday of January, on the country-specific Feast of the Santo Niño de Cebú. Some seven million people responded in what became known as the 1986 People Power Revolution, which lasted from February 22–25. The task of the Spanish missionaries, however, was far from complete. The prayers and viewing of the body in the funeral home usually last for one or two nights from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. I believe that Christmas is truly in their hearts. Read this article to discover the quirks and traditions all Filipinos know, from elaborate parades to dinners at Jollibee. The low number of missionaries on the island made it difficult to reach all the people and harder to convert them. Magellan, whose original destination was Spice Island, arrived on Cebu Island in the Philippines due to a missed route. On the last day of the Simbang Gabi, which is Christmas Eve, the service is instead called Misa de Gallo (Spanish for "Rooster's Mass"). Spanish inspired traditions are woven deeply into celebrations in Philippine culture. This video is unavailable. St. Francis of Assisi began this beloved tradition in the 13th century and to this day nativity scenes are seen in every Catholic Church around the world at Christmas time. The Philippines is home to many of the world's major religious congregations, these include the Redemptorists Augustinians, Just as the first Christmas took place in the embrace of family, Filipinos welcome the first minutes of Christmas Day with their bigger clan. Later, the Legazpi expedition of 1565 that was organized from Mexico City marked the beginning of the Hispanisation of the Philippines, beginning with Cebu. In 1599, negotiation began between a number of lords and their freemen and the Spaniards. Visita Iglesia: Filipino Catholics vow to visit seven churches during Holy Week. The holy reenactments that take place during this time is a true testament of Filipino dedication to religion. With the guarantee of religious freedom in the Philippines, the Catholic clergy subsequently remained in the political background as a source of moral influence especially during elections. With regard to most holy days of obligation, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) granted dispensation for all the faithful who cannot attend Masses on these days, except for the following yuletide observances: In 2001, the CBCP also approved a reform in the liturgical calendar, which added to its list of obligatory memorials the Feasts of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Maximilian Kolbe, Rita of Cascia, Ezequiel Moreno and many others. The bigger more intricate lanterns can cost thousands of dollars to produce. His attempt averted what could have been a bloody coup.[27]. This religion was first introduced through the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the early 1500s. Filipino Marian images with an established devotion have generally received a Canonical Coronation, with the icon's principal shrine being customarily elevated to the status of minor basilica. They blamed the influence of the Devil and desired to "liberate the natives from their evil ways". The Chinese had set up shops in the Parian (or bazaar) during the 1580s to trade silk and other goods for Mexican silver. Church and State today maintain generally cordial relations despite differing opinions over specific issues. The charismatic movement offered In-the-Spirit seminars in the early days, which have now evolved and have different names; they focus the charismatic gifts of the Holy Spirit. Pope Francis appointee installed as new Jolo apostolic vicar Some of the charismatic movements were the Ang Ligaya ng Panginoon, Assumption Prayer Group, Couples for Christ, the Brotherhood of Christian Businessmen and Professionals, El Shaddai, Elim Communities, Kerygma, the Light of Jesus Family,[17] Shalom, and Soldiers of Christ.[18]. Arroyo's press secretary Ignacio Bunye called the bishops and priests who attended an anti-Arroyo protest as hypocrites and "people who hide their true plans". Generally, patriarchal lords and kings were called datus and rajas, while the mahárlika were the nobility and the timawa were freedmen. The Catholic Church's Neocatechumenal Way in the Philippines has been established more than 40 years. The Spaniards saw themselves as liberating the natives from sinful practices and showing them the correct path to God. "Cebu—Cradle of the Philippine Church and Seat of Far-East Christianity." The Spanish government was highly dependent on the influx of silver from Mexico and Peru, since it supported the government in Manila, to continue the Christianization of the archipelago. The alipin or servile class were dependent on the upper classes, an arrangement regarded as slavery by the Spaniards. Then he called God 'stupid. Although Spain had used this system in America, it did not work as effectively in the Philippines, and the missionaries were not as successful in converting the natives as they had hoped. International Eucharistic Congress 2016, December 4, 2014, accessed December 4, 2014, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBacani1987 (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Concepcion, Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, San Sebastian College – Recoletos de Manila, Salesians of Don Bosco in the Philippines, List of Catholic dioceses in the Philippines, List of Filipino Saints, Blesseds, and Servants of God, Separation of church and state in the Philippines, "Philippines still top Christian country in Asia, 5th in world", "Filipino Catholic population expanding, say Church officials", "History of Cebu | Philippines Cebu Island History | Cebu City Tour", http://iec2016.ph/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Cebu%E2%80%94Cradle-of-the-Philippine-Church-and-Seat-of-Far-East-Christianity.pdf, "Church Leaders In Philippines Condemn Bloody War On Drugs", "Philippine Catholic priests: 'They are killing us, "Catholic Church Opens Sanctuaries to the Hunted in Philippines Drug War". 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